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Neuronal Signaling is involved in the regulation of the mechanics of the central nervous system such as its structure, function, genetics and physiology as well as how this can be applied to understand diseases of the nervous system. Every information processing system in the CNS is composed of neurons and glia, neurons have evolved unique capabilities for intracellular signaling (communication within the cell) and intercellular signaling (communication between cells).
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including 5-HT receptor, histamine receptor, opioid receptor, and etc, are the largest class of sensory proteins and are important therapeutic targets in Neuronal Signaling. GPCRs are activated by diverse stimuli, including light, enzymatic processing of their N-termini, and binding of proteins, peptides, or small molecules such as neurotransmitters, and regulate neuronal excitability by indirectly modulating the function of voltage-gated channels, such as voltage-gated calcium channel and transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. Besides, Notch signaling, such as β- and γ-secretase, also plays multiple roles in the development of the CNS including regulating neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, survival, self-renewal and differentiation.
GPCR dysfunction caused by receptor mutations and environmental challenges contributes to many neurological diseases. Notch signaling in neurons, glia, and NSCs is also involved in pathological changes that occur in disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and CNS tumors. Thus, targeting Neuronal Signaling, such as notch signaling and GPCRs, can be used as therapeutic interventions for several different CNS disorders.
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